PEM Inc. patents disclose the GMP™, System of Systems™, Biosphere Boxes™ , and related system features that organize, account and monetize direct measurements of GHG flux. A universal anthropogenic carbon index, based on direct high frequency measurements of 14CO2, applicable to local, regional and country-scale emission reduction inventories and commercial GHG markets is also disclosed.

US Patent 8595020 entitled “System of Systems for Monitoring Greenhouse Gas Fluxes” issued on November 26, 2013, discloses a multi-component automated sensor system for direct measurement and management of regional greenhouse gas fluxes and pricing of same, employing universal references focused on forest and terrestrial landscapes. US Patent 9,514,493, entitled, “System of Systems for Monitoring Greenhouse Gas Fluxes” issued on December 6, 2016, covers additional claims for flux measurements over aquatic (oceanic, freshwater), agricultural and related forest landscapes. US Patent 9152994, “Systems and Methods for Managing Global Warming” issued on October 6, 2015, discloses the components and processes to construct and implement global, regional and sub-regional live trading systems employing a universal carbon index for fossil fuel emissions based on direct measurements of 14CO2. The patent further discloses a method to create a diversified portfolio of projects or “Biosphere Boxes” covering one or more greenhouse gas reservoirs, or in the case of forests, the carbon sequestered over the geographic project area over a given period of time. 14CO2 is a radiogenic isotope of CO2 and the only direct and conserved tracer to track fossil-fuel based CO2 emissions (e.g., CO2 from gasoline, natural gas and coal). The 14CO2 based universal index provides a unique and novel market mechanism to value, track and trade fossil fuel carbon across all reduction genres and measurement platforms. The patents described have been granted or are pending in a variety of countries including the US, Canada, Mexico, Europe, Australia, China, India, South Korea and Japan.



Planetary Emissions Management Inc. is  pursuing new and emerging technologies for high precision determination of 14CO2 in a portable analyzer.  High frequency and high precision data for 14CO2 are required to track, analyze, manage and monetize fossil fuel derived CO2 in the biosphere. Humanities perturbation to the climate system cannot be fully understood, managed or monetized without increased data for 14CO2. New 14CO2 data for diverse soil ecosystems are likely to yield a better understanding of their response to changing climate.


The Global Monitor Platform (GMP) is a multi-isotopic integrated field measurement platform. The GMP components may include commercial 12C and 13C analyzers for CO2 and experimental field analyzer modules for 14CO2. The GMP can be configured to include CH4, N2O and their isotopic species available from commercial vendors. The GMP enables direct measurement of GHG’s across diverse project types, small and large. When coupled with well developed field methods to determine GHG fluxes, PEM provides commercially available comprehensive data for GHG budgets and verification of fossil-fuel emission reduction reporting. The GMP can be deployed to detect fraud in fossil-fuel emission reduction claims.


The System of Systems (SoS) network consists of GMP sensor nodes across the geographical boundaries of a project site. The SoS is designed to monitor  net carbon flux at local-to-regional scales, produce automated reports, respond to remote commands and result in verified data for carbon financial instruments. Carbon standards and third party verification are employed at multiple scales to ensure harmonization of data and carbon financial instruments across analyzers in one or multiple networks.